|rules||Yara rules in the yara DSL.||string (required)|
|files||The list of files to scan.||list of Any (required)|
|accessor||Accessor (e.g. ntfs,file)||string|
|context||How many bytes to include around each hit||int|
|start||The start offset to scan||uint64|
|end||End scanning at this offset (100mb)||uint64|
|number||Stop after this many hits (1).||int64|
|blocksize||Blocksize for scanning (1mb).||uint64|
|key||If set use this key to cache the yara rules.||string|
|namespace||The Yara namespece to use.||string|
|vars||The Yara variables to use.||ordereddict.Dict|
Required Permissions: FILESYSTEM_READ
Scan files using yara rules.
yara() plugin applies a signature consisting of multiple rules
across files. You can read more about yara rules. The
accessor is used to open the various files which allows this plugin to
work across raw ntfs, zip members or indeed process memory.
Scanning proceeds by reading a block from the file, then applying the yara rule on the block. This will fail if the signature is split across block boundary. You can choose the block size to be appropriate.
If the accessor is not specified we use the yara library to directly open the file itself without Velociraptor’s accessor API. This allows Yara to mmap the file which has a number of benefits including:
The ability to scan without reading in blocks - so a signature matching the file header as well as a string deep within the file works.
Various Yara extensions like the
pe extension work allowing
rules that use such extensions to work properly.
If we are not able to open the file (for example due to sharing violations), Velociraptor will automatically fall back to the ntfs accessor (on Windows) and will automatically switch to block by block scanning.
Typically the yara rule does not change for the life of the query,
so Velociraptor caches it to avoid having to recompile it each
key variable can be used to uniquely identify the
cache key for the rule. If the
key variable is not specified, we
use the rule text itself to generate the cache key. It is
recommended that the
key parameter be specified because it makes
it more efficient since we do not need to hash the rules each time.
This plugin accepts yara rules in the
rules parameter. But typically
we only search for keywords so writing a full yara syntax rule is
tedious. Therefore we provide a shorthand way to specify the
keywords. For example:
When the rule is provided in the above form, the plugin will
automatically generate a yara rule which matches any of the specified
keywords. The specification before the
: means the same thing as the
yara DSL and the following combinations are supported
wide nocase ascii.
This shorthand notation is less useful because recent Velociraptor versions offer a context sensitive Yara rule editor in the GUI (simply press ? to bring up a rule template).
By default only the first 100mb of the file are scanned and scanning stops after one hit is found.
The YARA engine supports a number of directives that bring in
unreasonably sized dependencies. Velociraptor’s Yara integration
disables directive importing dependencies such as openssl and
libmagic. This means that some rule conditions do not work (for
pe.number_of_signatures). Other condition are still
pe.imphash()). You can usually find equivalents
to the Yara plugins in VQL plugins so rules can be rewritten to
avoid this limitation.
If you have a large number of rules, you may use the
repository https://github.com/Velocidex/yara-tools to clean up the
rules and verify that they will work with Velociraptor’s yara
engine. The tool will automatically remove rules that are
incompatible with Velociraptor and reduce the size of the rules by
removing metadata and extra fluff.